The latest data on national water consumption showed a huge supply gap between the national tap water company PAM and the private bottled water companies operating in Indonesia. PAM provided 3.2 billion litres of tap waters in 2013, whereas the bottled water sales in that year reached 20.3 billion litres. The sales number rose to 23.9 billion litres the following year. This indicates that the government still fall short of meeting the demand for water, an essential human needs. Hence it implicates to human rights issues. Indonesia established PAM on ground of securing water access for national consumption. The constitution grants the goverment a full authority over water utilization.


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