September saw the commemoration of several international days to raise environmental awareness, from the International Day of Clean Air for Blue Skies that fell on the 7th, International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer on 16th, and World Maritime Day on the 24th.
Archipelago Strategic & Partners Indonesia (ASPI), an environmental management consulting that has helped local organizations to implement ISO 14001:2015 standard in environmental management, celebrated the month by campaigning on the importance of business sustainability on grounds of environmental protection and circular economy.
Go to ASPI portfolio to learn more of their works in making Indonesia a sustainable place for business investment by conforming to ISO’s environmental management standard.
Energy efficiency of shipping
International shipping transports more than 80 per cent of global trade to peoples and communities all over the world. Shipping is the most efficient and cost-effective method of international transportation for most goods; it provides a dependable, low-cost means of transporting goods globally, facilitating commerce and helping to create prosperity among nations and peoples.
The world relies on a safe, secure and efficient international shipping industry, which is an essential component of any programme for future sustainable green economic growth in a sustainable manner.
The promotion of sustainable shipping and sustainable maritime development is one of the major priorities of International Maritime Organization (IMO) in the coming years. Therefore, energy efficiency, new technology and innovation, maritime education and training, maritime security, maritime traffic management and the development of the maritime infrastructure: the development and implementation of global standards covering these and other issues will underpin IMO’s commitment to provide the institutional framework necessary for a green and sustainable global maritime transportation system.
The theme for this year’s World Maritime Day is Sustainable shipping for a sustainable planet which provides an excellent opportunity to raise awareness of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
The shipping industry has already started the transition towards this sustainable future with the adoption of measures to cut greenhouse gas emissions, reduce the sulphur content of ships’ fuel oil, implement the Ballast Water Management Convention, protect the polar regions, reduce marine litter, and improve the efficiency of shipping through the electronic exchange of information.
Ozone layer protection
World Ozone Day has been celebrated since 1994, when the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed on 16 September the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, commemorating the date, in 1987, on which the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed.
The day is mainly intended to spread awareness of the depletion of the Ozone Layer and search for solutions to preserve it.
Encouraged by the increasing interest of the international community in clean air, and emphasizing the need to make further efforts to improve air quality, including reducing air pollution, to protect human health, the General Assembly of the United Nations decided to designate 7 September as the International Day of Clean Air for blue skies.
Аir pollution is the single greatest environmental risk to human health and one of the main avoidable causes of death and disease globally, with some estimated 6.5 million premature deaths across the world in 2016 attributed to indoor and outdoor air pollution.
Particularly in developing countries, air pollution disproportionately affects women, children and the elderly, especially in low-income populations as they are often exposed to high levels of ambient air pollution and indoor air pollution from cooking and heating with wood fuel and kerosene.
Аir pollution is a global problem with far-reaching impacts owing to its transport over long distances. In the absence of aggressive intervention, the number of premature deaths resulting from ambient air pollution is estimated to be on track to increase by more than 50 per cent by 2050.
Society bears a high cost of air pollution due to the negative impacts on the economy, work productivity, healthcare costs and tourism, among others. Hence, the economic benefits of investing in air pollution control cannot be overestimated, and it must be understood that there is also an economic rationale to act and that cost-effective solutions exist to address air pollution.
Poor air quality is a challenge in the context of sustainable development for all countries, in particular in cities and urban areas in developing countries, with levels of air pollution that are higher than the limits set out in the WHO air quality guidelines.
Some air pollutants, such as black carbon, methane and ground-level ozone, are also short-lived climate pollutants and are responsible for a significant portion of air pollution-related deaths, as well as impacts on crops and hence food security, so their reduction has co-benefits for the climate.
International Day of Clean Air for blue skies
UN Member States recognize the need to substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination by 2030, as well as to reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management by 2030.
Clean air is important for the health and day-to-day lives of people, while air pollution is the single greatest environmental risk to human health and one of the main avoidable causes of death and disease globally. Air pollution disproportionately affects women, children and older persons, and also has a negative impact on ecosystems.
Today, the international community acknowledges that improving air quality can enhance climate change mitigation and that climate change mitigation efforts can improve air quality.
In the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, entitled the future we want, Indonesia, among many countries committed to promoting sustainable development policies that support healthy air quality in the context of sustainable cities and human settlements. Also, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which outlines a road map to achieving sustainable development, environmental protection and prosperity for all, recognizes that air pollution abatement is important to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals.
In Indonesia Energy Outlook 2018, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (2018), primary energy mix in Indonesia is still dominated by fossil fuel and coal which account for 38% and 30% of total primary energy in 2016. The use of new renewable energy (NRE) continues to increase but still not realized at its full potential and lag behind other traditional sources of energy such as coal and fossil fuel.
Presently, the main supplies of NRE in Indonesia come from hydropower, then followed by biomass, geothermal, and biodiesel. These sources of power have not been developed optimally due to various constraints such as high initial investment costs, geographical location, and low efficiency.
With the current pace of NRE development, the government target of NRE mix at 23% in 2025 is difficult to achieve. A study by the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology in 2018 estimates NRE proportion to total primary energy will only reach 12.9% in 2025 and 14.9% in 2050.
More ambitious policies and a comprehensive NRE program that include stakeholders both from the demand and supply sides have to be implemented in order to accelerate renewable energy mix in Indonesia.
Policy direction 2020-2024
Increasing the utilization of new renewable energy (NRE) to generate electricity
Development of an NRE-based small electric power energy system for supplying electric power in regions tha他are not covered by grid expansion
Budget allocation for the NRE infrastructures development for villages that will not be electrified sustainably for a long-term use
Establishment of an NRE’s separate business entity that mandated by the government to develop, utilize, and/or purchase NRE;
Increasing the role of the private sector incentive-based policy to encourage investment in NRE
Regulatory reform to maximize citizens’ participation in NRE development,
Designing an NRE development plan that feasible to implement.
Reviewing the utilization of nuclear power plants
Conducting research on nuclear power plants development which takes account economic and safety factors
Designing a roadmap for nuclear power plants implementation as the last option of national energy development priorities
Preparing the regulatory and institutional needs of nuclear power plants implementation
Preparing to master nuclear power plants technology
Accelerate the implementation of geothermal energy
Preparing geothermal fields as the new geothermal mining plant
Perfecting the mechanism of tender procurements in geothermal infrastructures development and accelerating the biddings for new geothermal mining plant
Creating fiscal and non-fiscal incentives system to reduce the risk of geothermal exploration.
Increasing biofuels utilization
Conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels use in the transportation and manufacturing sectors, and power plants
Provision of special land for energy gardens,
Development of potential commodities/superior varieties aside from food needs
Improvement of biofuel off-taker mechanism (market guarantee), including standardizations, subsidies, and raw material prices, as well as biofuels’ selling prices
Improving the quality and potency of new renewable energy data
Quality and quantity increase of water energy potential survey, bioenergy, solar, and wind
Implementation of current potential survey, tide an difference in ocean layer temperature, and other NREs.
Policy direction 2025-2030
Increasing the utilization of new renewable energy (NRE)
Strengthening the development of smart grid system
Budget enforcement for the NRE infrastructures development
National industry development to support NRE power plants construction
Developing nuclear power plants utilization
Increasing the national capacity in the field of nuclear power use safety
Preparing pre-feasibility academic studies as a basis to make a decision on the planning of nuclear power plant development
Preparation of nuclear power plants development
Increasing investment in the NRE sector
Strengthening the role of NRE business entities
Promoting investment in NRE sector
Polishing NRE’s financing schemes
Refining price schemes of NRE-powered electricity
Develop new technologies for the progress of new and renewable energy
Technology development and innovation of equipment/machinery/transportation facilities of biofuels;
Technology development and utilization innovations of new energy