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Towards greener maritime industry

September saw the commemoration of several international days to raise environmental awareness, from the International Day of Clean Air for Blue Skies that fell on the 7th, International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer on 16th, and World Maritime Day on the 24th.

Archipelago Strategic & Partners Indonesia (ASPI), an environmental management consulting that has helped local organizations to implement ISO 14001:2015 standard in environmental management, celebrated the month by campaigning on the importance of business sustainability on grounds of environmental protection and circular economy.

Go to ASPI portfolio to learn more of their works in making Indonesia a sustainable place for business investment by conforming to ISO’s environmental management standard.

Energy efficiency of shipping

International shipping transports more than 80 per cent of global trade to peoples and communities all over the world. Shipping is the most efficient and cost-effective method of international transportation for most goods; it provides a dependable, low-cost means of transporting goods globally, facilitating commerce and helping to create prosperity among nations and peoples.

The world relies on a safe, secure and efficient international shipping industry, which is an essential component of any programme for future sustainable green economic growth in a sustainable manner.

The promotion of sustainable shipping and sustainable maritime development is one of the major priorities of International Maritime Organization (IMO) in the coming years. Therefore, energy efficiency, new technology and innovation, maritime education and training, maritime security, maritime traffic management and the development of the maritime infrastructure: the development and implementation of global standards covering these and other issues will underpin IMO’s commitment to provide the institutional framework necessary for a green and sustainable global maritime transportation system.

See also: ISO 14001:2015 environmental management system development and certification of a dredging company PT Global Jaya Maritimindo by ASPI

Ships release anchor at Jakarta International Container Terminal. Photo courtesy of think archipelago.

The theme for this year’s World Maritime Day is Sustainable shipping for a sustainable planet which provides an excellent opportunity to raise awareness of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The shipping industry has already started the transition towards this sustainable future with the adoption of measures to cut greenhouse gas emissions, reduce the sulphur content of ships’ fuel oil, implement the Ballast Water Management Convention, protect the polar regions, reduce marine litter, and improve the efficiency of shipping through the electronic exchange of information.

Ozone layer protection

World Ozone Day has been celebrated since 1994, when the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed on 16 September the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, commemorating the date, in 1987, on which the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed.

The day is mainly intended to spread awareness of the depletion of the Ozone Layer and search for solutions to preserve it. 

References

  1. https://www.un.org/en/observances/maritime-day
  2. unenvironment.org

 

Indonesia SDGs road map for clean, blue sky

Encouraged by the increasing interest of the international community in clean air, and emphasizing the need to make further efforts to improve air quality, including reducing air pollution, to protect human health, the General Assembly of the United Nations decided to designate 7 September as the International Day of Clean Air for blue skies.

Аir pollution is the single greatest environmental risk to human health and one of the main avoidable causes of death and disease globally, with some estimated 6.5 million premature deaths across the world in 2016 attributed to indoor and outdoor air pollution. 

Particularly in developing countries, air pollution disproportionately affects women, children and the elderly, especially in low-income populations as they are often exposed to high levels of ambient air pollution and indoor air pollution from cooking and heating with wood fuel and kerosene.

Аir pollution is a global problem with far-reaching impacts owing to its transport over long distances. In the absence of aggressive intervention, the number of premature deaths resulting from ambient air pollution is estimated to be on track to increase by more than 50 per cent by 2050.

Society bears a high cost of air pollution due to the negative impacts on the economy, work productivity, healthcare costs and tourism, among others. Hence, the economic benefits of investing in air pollution control cannot be overestimated, and it must be understood that there is also an economic rationale to act and that cost-effective solutions exist to address air pollution.

Poor air quality is a challenge in the context of sustainable development for all countries, in particular in cities and urban areas in developing countries, with levels of air pollution that are higher than the limits set out in the WHO air quality guidelines. 

Some air pollutants, such as black carbon, methane and ground-level ozone, are also short-lived climate pollutants and are responsible for a significant portion of air pollution-related deaths, as well as impacts on crops and hence food security, so their reduction has co-benefits for the climate.

International Day of Clean Air for blue skies

UN Member States recognize the need to substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination by 2030, as well as to reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management by 2030.

Clean air is important for the health and day-to-day lives of people, while air pollution is the single greatest environmental risk to human health and one of the main avoidable causes of death and disease globally. Air pollution disproportionately affects women, children and older persons, and also has a negative impact on ecosystems.

Today, the international community acknowledges that improving air quality can enhance climate change mitigation and that climate change mitigation efforts can improve air quality.

Read also: ASPI business and management consulting service of ISO 14001:2015 environmental management system development and certification.

A view of Jakarta on a sunny afternoon. Photo courtesy of think archipelago.

Clean Air and Sustainable Development Goals

In the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, entitled the future we want, Indonesia, among many countries committed to promoting sustainable development policies that support healthy air quality in the context of sustainable cities and human settlements. Also, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which outlines a road map to achieving sustainable development, environmental protection and prosperity for all, recognizes that air pollution abatement is important to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals.

In Indonesia Energy Outlook 2018, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (2018), primary energy mix in Indonesia is still dominated by fossil fuel and coal which account for 38% and 30% of total primary energy in 2016. The use of new renewable energy (NRE) continues to increase but still not realized at its full potential and lag behind other traditional sources of energy such as coal and fossil fuel.

Presently, the main supplies of NRE in Indonesia come from hydropower, then followed by biomass, geothermal, and biodiesel. These sources of power have not been developed optimally due to various constraints such as high initial investment costs, geographical location, and low efficiency.

With the current pace of NRE development, the government target of NRE mix at 23% in 2025 is difficult to achieve. A study by the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology in 2018 estimates NRE proportion to total primary energy will only reach 12.9% in 2025 and 14.9% in 2050.

More ambitious policies and a comprehensive NRE program that include stakeholders both from the demand and supply sides have to be implemented in order to accelerate renewable energy mix in Indonesia.

Policy direction 2020-2024

  1. Increasing the utilization of new renewable energy (NRE) to generate electricity
    • Development of an NRE-based small electric power energy system for supplying electric power in regions tha他are not covered by grid expansion
    • Budget allocation for the NRE infrastructures development for villages that will not be electrified sustainably for a long-term use
    • Establishment of an NRE’s separate business entity that mandated by the government to develop, utilize, and/or purchase NRE;
    • Increasing the role of the private sector incentive-based policy to encourage investment in NRE
    • Regulatory reform to maximize citizens’ participation in NRE development,
    • Designing an NRE development plan that feasible to implement.
  2. Reviewing the utilization of nuclear power plants
    • Conducting research on nuclear power plants development which takes account economic and safety factors
    • Designing a roadmap for nuclear power plants implementation as the last option of national energy development priorities
    • Preparing the regulatory and institutional needs of nuclear power plants implementation
    • Preparing to master nuclear power plants technology
  3. Accelerate the implementation of geothermal energy
    • Preparing geothermal fields as the new geothermal mining plant
    • Perfecting the mechanism of tender procurements in geothermal infrastructures development and accelerating the biddings for new geothermal mining plant
    • Creating fiscal and non-fiscal incentives system to reduce the risk of geothermal exploration.
  4. Increasing biofuels utilization
    • Conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels use in the transportation and manufacturing sectors, and power plants
    • Provision of special land for energy gardens,
    • Development of potential commodities/superior varieties aside from food needs
    • Improvement of biofuel off-taker mechanism (market guarantee), including standardizations, subsidies, and raw material prices, as well as biofuels’ selling prices
  5. Improving the quality and potency of new renewable energy data
    • Quality and quantity increase of water energy potential survey, bioenergy, solar, and wind
    • Implementation of current potential survey, tide an difference in ocean layer temperature, and other NREs.

Policy direction 2025-2030

  1. Increasing the utilization of new renewable energy (NRE)
    • Strengthening the development of smart grid system
    • Budget enforcement for the NRE infrastructures development
    • National industry development to support NRE power plants construction
  2. Developing nuclear power plants utilization
    • Increasing the national capacity in the field of nuclear power use safety
    • Preparing pre-feasibility academic studies as a basis to make a decision on the planning of nuclear power plant development
    • Preparation of nuclear power plants development
  3. Increasing investment in the NRE sector
    • Strengthening the role of NRE business entities
    • Promoting investment in NRE sector
    • Polishing NRE’s financing schemes
    • Refining price schemes of NRE-powered electricity
  4. Develop new technologies for the progress of new and renewable energy
    • Technology development and innovation of equipment/machinery/transportation facilities of biofuels;
    • Technology development and utilization innovations of new energy

Reference:

  1. United Nations International Day of Clean Air for blue skies 7 September. un.org. 2020.
  2. Indonesia Energy Outlook 2018, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology. 2018.
  3. Roadmap of SDGs Indonesia: Highlight, Indonesia Secretariat for Sustainable Development Goals, Ministry of National Development Planning/National Development Planning Agency. 2018.

 

ASEAN Occupational Safety and Health Network foundation

The ASEAN Occupational Safety and Health Network (ASEAN-OSHNET) and its predecessors have a long history, extending back to the 1980s. It is a network of 10 ASEAN countries’ government OSH institutions, OSH departments of the ministries of labour (MOL), or respective bodies or institutions in the jurisdiction of the MOL.

Its origin can be traced from the ILO Programme for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment (PIACT) in 1976.

An ILO seminar, held in 1984 for the ASEAN countries, recommended the establishment of a regional centre to collect and disseminate information in ASEAN, and to manage research and training for the improvement of working conditions and environments.

The idea to develop a project network for improving working conditions was agreed by the First ASEAN Labour Technical Working Group Meeting, held in October 1984 in Manila, and the proposal was approved by the Fifth ASEAN Labour Ministers’ Meeting, held in Manila at the same time.

In 1995, the ASEAN Secretariat obtained United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) funding to conduct a feasibility study on the establishment of an ASEAN training centre and network for the improvement of working conditions and environments.

Offshore inspection by management team onboard of a self-propelled unloading barge in reclamation project in Indonesia.

Establishment and development

Feasibility study was conducted in 1996, and a workshop to review the results was convened in Manila in October of the same year, attended by the head of the Philippine National OSH Centre and national experts from seven ASEAN countries. They agreed upon the following recommendations:

  1. To establish ASEAN-OSHNET among the national OSH institutions in ASEAN
  2. To form an ASEAN-OSHNET Coordinating Board, comprising the heads of the national OSH centres or their equivalents – which report directly to the ASEAN Subcommittee on Labour Affairs (ASCLA) – to oversee the operation of ASEAN-OSHNET, and the planning and implementation of its Plan of Action.
  3. That the ASEAN-OSHNET Coordinating Board will meet once a year, and its immediate task will be to establish the secretariat of the network.
  4. That ASEAN-OSHNET be considered a flagship project of the ASEAN Economic Charter
  5. To include six projects in the Proposed Four-Year Plan of Action.

The development history of ASEAN-OSHNET can be divided into four stages:

  1. Foundation – establishment of the network, defining the mission and objectives, building infrastructure, and agreeing on division of work (2000 – 2005).
  2. Policy, and substantive capacity development – earning official recognition by the ALMM, focusing on programme areas, content and methods, training capabilities, and learning networking practices (2006 – 2010).
  3. Revitalizing – evaluating the achievements, identifying strengths and challenges, showing results, raising the OSH profile, and expanding scope and coverage (2011-2015).
  4. Integration, regional and global – combining objectives from several policy dimensions for the overall development of work life within the framework of the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC) vision 2025, and the ALM labour ministers’ Work Plan 2016 – 2020, and the UN Sustainable Development Goals in collaboration with the Plus Three and global partners, ILO, ISSA, the IALI, and ICOH.

Indonesia’s leading role

From the beginning, the development of the network has been continuous and progressive. After 15 years of activity ASEAN-OSHNET is well established, active, and productive. An extensive report, Turning Visions into Action, was published in 2015 for the 15th anniversary of the network,
and it documented full achievement of the objectives set in the foundation meetings.

Indonesia ministry of manpower held the 20th ASEAN Coordinating Board Meeting (CBM), which is held annually by rotating hosts among Southeast Asian countries, in Yogyakarta in 2019.

Speaking at the opening meeting, Directorate General of Labor Supervision and Occupational Safety and Health secretary Budi Hartawan said the meeting aims to collect and disseminate information, research and training to improve the environment and working conditions in ASEAN.”

It was the third time Indonesia had become host and chairman of the CBM, after 2000 and 2010.

Status and constitution

The foundation of the ASEAN-OSHNET is based on the memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the members’ OSH administrations from the year 2000.

Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam have formally recognized the ASEAN-OSHNET as an important instrument for the development of ASEAN OSH policies and practices in the region, and have delegated key tasks in the implementation of the ASEAN Labour Ministers’ Meeting (ALMM) OSH strategy.

In 2006, OSH was added as the sixth priority area for ASEAN. The ASEAN Labour Ministers’ Meeting (ALMM) has formally recognized ASEAN-OSHNET as an instrument for the ASEAN OSH policy implementation, such as in 2017 when they adopted a Statement on Improvement of Occupational Safety and Health for Sustainable Economic Growth.

ASEAN-OSHNET can demonstrate high productivity and impact at the level of policy support for the prevention and management of occupational hazards, accidents, and diseases. This has been done through the implementation of the network’s own, OSH strategies, development of strategic planning and national OSH programmes, development of OSH framework and infrastructures, development of research, information, human resources, and their competence through training, and guidelines and methods for good practices in OSH and in inspection.

Read also: BMIS integrated management system of ISO 9001:2015, ISO 14001:2015, OHSAS 18001:2007 certifications, audit assistance by ASPI

Provision of occupational safety for BMIS workers at a jetty construction in Bintan, Indonesia

References

Alibaba Cloud Summit: the pulse of digitalization

Jakarta central business district

A reliable and scalable cloud infrastructure can improve performance and simplify operations for every aspect of IT infrastructure. Optimized resource and recovery capabilities ensure business continuity for e-commerce, fintechs, online media and education, or gaming industry.

Digital application built on such platform enable digital companies to offer both online and offline customers better user experience, and to achieve more efficient IT spending.

Alibaba is devoted to empowering local businesses and industries of all sizes in the transition to the digital world, said Alibaba Cloud Intelligence Internatoinal Business President Selina Yuan in Alibaba Cloud Summit 2020, the first to be held virtually on 2 July.

Alibaba has been partnering with Adira Finance since 2018, after the launch of their first data center in Indonesia, helping to empower the ERP system, and manage digital initiatives with the support of the latest technology, said deputy director Dodi Suwandi.

Dwiantoro Wibowo, Indonet Business Solution Director said that his company even has partnered with Alibaba before there is an Alibaba data center in 2017.

Astra international subholding for financial services business Astra Financial director Handoko Liem commended Alibaba for the uninterrupted services during pandemic lockdown.

Tokopedia Distinguished Engineer Andrew Efendi said both companies have made cooperations in comprehensive set of product portfolios, ranging from infrastructure as a service, big data, artificial intelligence, and security.

ASPI team watched Alibaba Cloud Summit 2020 online from ASPI head office, Tangerang

In the recorded opening speech, Indonesian Communication and Information Technology minister Johnny G. Plate, congratulated Alibaba on the commencement of the third availability zone and data scrubbing centre in Indonesia, scheduled for operation by early next year.

The initiative will become part of efforts to accelerate Indonesia’s digital transformation. The ministry hoped that data management by industry players in line with the principles of data management for Indonesian government, namely lawfulness, fairness, and transparency.

Indonesia has consistently conveyed these principles in various international forums, such as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), World Economic Forum (WEF), G-20 Digital Economy Task Force Forum, and the latest ASEAN-China Year on Digital Economy Cooperation

Alibaba Cloud Indonesia Country Manager Leon Chen stressed out the necessity to provide a trusted cloud infrastructure – meaning always online – that is also compliant with local regulatory aspects.

“Three data centers will further improve the disaster recovery capability, which allow clients to move critical tasks to another available zone. More businesses, including traditional ones such as bank, have their IT infrastructure moved to cloud in the wake of pandemic crisis,” he said.

3 data centers in Indonesia, the previous two completed in 2018 and 2019, add up to 64 availability zones in 21 countries across the globe. They provide high availability for clients to easily perform disaster recovery over multiple zones.

The new data center plus scrubbing center will further enrich Alibaba Cloud services In Indonesia, ranging from database, computing, network, to data analytics.

Meanwhile Alibaba Cloud Anti DDoS (distributed denial of service) running on a scrubbing center can automatically mitigate attacks and heighten security level.

With the opening of the first data scrubbing center in Indonesia, Alibaba will be able to detect, analyze, remove suspicious traffic to fend of the DDoS attack, especially for clients in finance and gaming sectors.

Johnny made remarks about the accelerating digitalization owing to the pandemic. But the key factor in digital transformation of Indonesia’s economy lies in the continuing collaboration between the government, entrepreneurs, academics, civil society, and all stakeholders in order to reap the true benefits out of innovation.

SMEs pandemic risk and opportunity

According to United Nations special report on SME Day 2020, small, medium and start-up enterprises, which generally employ fewer than 250 persons, are the backbone of most economies worldwide and currently play a key role in developing countries.

According to the data provided by the International Council for Small Business (ICSB), formal and informal small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) make up over 90% of all firms and account. While they may be small individually, new ILO data show that micro and small enterprises, together with own account workers, account for a staggering 70% of employment worldwide.

These types of enterprises, with a large share of those classed as micro firms consisting of fewer than ten employees, are responsible for significant employment and income generation opportunities across the world and have been identified as a major driver of poverty alleviation and development.

SMEs tend to employ a larger share of the vulnerable sectors of the workforce, such as women, youth, and people from poorer households – populations with high vulnerability in times of COVID-19. SMEs can sometimes be the only source of employment in rural areas. As such, SMEs as a group are the main income provider for income distribution at the “base of the pyramid”.

Across all countries, SMEs do more than create employment: they are also engines of economic growth and social development. In most OECD countries, SMEs contribute more than 50% of GDP, and some global estimates put this figure as high as 70%. This contribution varies across sectors, and is particularly high in the service industry, where SMEs account for 60% or more of GDP in nearly all OECD countries.

To continue playing their crucial role in creating decent jobs and improving livelihoods, small businesses depend more than ever on an enabling business environment, including support for access to finance, information, and markets.

The Indonesian-based Archipelago Strategic & Partners Indonesia (ASPI) business and management consulting, for their part, play an active role in helping both local SMEs and large enterprises meet ISO standards requirements through system development, competency-based certified training course, and reliable publication to support their partners’ business sustainability.

ASPI marketing director Felice Arlene, M.Si, said that trust is fundamental, as in every business scenes around the globe, but her team are also committed to deliver creative and practical approach to support businesses circumvent risks, while foreseeing the opportunities on the flip side of the coin.

Central Jakarta business district

See also: ASPI business and management consulting portfolio

Small businesses, including those run by women and young start-up entrepreneurs, are being hit hardest by the economic fall-out of the pandemic. Unprecedented lockdown measures enacted to contain the spread of the coronavirus have resulted in supply chain disruptions and a massive drop in demand in most sectors.

A global survey by the International Trade Centre, an agency of WTO and UN, reported in SME Competitiveness Outlook 2020, showed that The majority (55%) of businesses had been strongly affected by the pandemic and the measures taken to contain it. Smaller companies tended to be more strongly affected by COVID-19 than larger ones. Nearly two-thirds of micro and small firms said their business operations were strongly affected by the crisis, compared with about 40% for large companies.

Companies operating in services have been most affected by COVID-19 (Figure 24), with the most severity reported by those in accommodation and food services, followed by non-food manufacturing; retail and wholesale; and travel and transport. Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises are overrepresented in most of these sectors. In accommodation and food services, 76% of businesses said their operations were strongly affected by COVID-19 as a result of partial and full lockdown (Figure 24). More than three quarters of companies in this sector experienced a reduction in sales.

On the other hand, COVID-19 has presented an opportunity for some manufacturing firms. About 10% of firms in agri-food processing experienced an increase in sales due to COVID-19.

According to Forbes, a venture capital General Catalyst announced USD 2.3 billion plan for three series of funding, comprising seed funding, growth funding, and further support for the leagues of established start-ups to aim for bigger sales.

In April, General Catalyst executives said of how the pandemic brings forth the technology that allows them to rethink several core services in healthcare, education, and SMEs. Abound with optimism, they believed the founders will march forward while creating wonders out of the pandemic.

Experts opined that it is the time for start-up enterpreneurs to convince the public that they can endure the pandemic. The developing situation suggests some tech-driven opportunities leaning towards several industries including logistics, education, healthcare, and cyber security.

Online-based education start-up Yuanfudao from China recently acquired USD 1 billion fundings, adding up to their valuation at USD 7.8 billion. Initiated by Hillhouse and Tencent Holdings, investors can see the opportunity that underlies parents decision to move their children’s learning activities home, making advantage of all possible virtual means.  

English learning platform Lingumi brought in GBP 4 million in fundings when users recorded 50% increase during strict measures among Chinese citizen.

The founders of the artificial intelligence hotel booking company Pruvo in Israel are delighted to get USD 1.1 billion in seed fundings when the timing seem all at odds for many companies to attract investors.

Opportunity-driven investors are also found in a number of app-based retailers. Data collected by analytics company Apptopia suggested, several apps from the US recorded daily download rates surging in March compared to February.

Coupled with preventive measures by the US governments, the demand for goods delivery and household stocks had boosted Instacart up 218 per cent, Walmart Grocery 160 per cent, and Shipt 124 per cent.


References

Sustainable maritime industry rules

The International Maritime Organization (IMO), ruling by consensus of its 170 members, regulates the increase of energy efficiency and reduction in emissions.

The regulations require new ships to have 10 per cent increased efficiency by 2015. Developing countries, including Liberia and Panama, the two largest ship registries, can apply for a waiver until 2019. Now shipping continues to grow more, along with its emission.

IMO calls maritime transport a relatively small contributor to atmospheric emission compared to aviation or road transport. But combined, they are still second to a billion tons of carbon a year and nearly 4 per cent of greenhouse gases emitted by the maritime industry, due to its enormous size.

On a book Ninety Nine Per Cent of Everything (2013), author George Rose outlined that a giant ship can emit as much pollution into the atmosphere as coal-fired power plant. In 2009, it was calculated that the largest fifteen ships could be emitting as much as 760 million cars. For decades nobody noticed that, if added, shipping ranked sixth among the list of polluting countries. Ships create more pollution than Germany.

Ships burn bunker fuel, which takes its name from the coal bunkers it used to be stored in. Bunker, the real name is Residual Fuel Oil, is still the cheapest of all types, but dirty. It is unrefined that a person can walk on it at room temperature. Even the spokesperson for Intertanko, an association of independent tanker owners, calls it “crud” and “one step from asphalt.”

Burning bunker fuel releases into the atmosphere gases and particulate matter, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur dioxide, black carbon, and particulate organic matter.

Read also: ASPI professionals help maritime organizations develop ISO 14001:2015 environmental management system

There are many environmental rules to follow in the ocean. SOLAS requires shipping to prevent, reduce, and control pollution of the marine environment from any source. MARPOL, which entered into force in 1983 and has been ratified by 136 countries, has rules that govern the discharge of oil, garbage, and sewage.

Paper, for instance, can be discharged twelve miles out, but plastic is never permitted. Sewage sludge can also be dicharged twelve miles out, and it also applies to cruise ships, which can carry six thousand people.

Sewage can add to ocean nitrification and the vastly increasing number of dead zones where excessive nutrients-present in sewage and agricultural runoff-have sucked ocygen from the sea, creating anoxic zones where fish and other life can no longer live. In 2003, there were 146 ocean dead zones. Five years later 400.

Dredging equipment Split Barge GJ 501 off Sulawesi Sea, Indonesia.

As an IMO member council, Indonesia is committed to play an active role in marine pollution prevention in national and international waters alike. Coinciding with the implementation of new fuel regulation by 1 January 2020, Indonesian government mandates Indonesian flag ships and international ships to use 0.50% m/m sulphur concentration limit in fuel to reduce the amount of sulphur oxide emanating from ships and should have major health and environmental benefits for the world, particularly for populations living close to ports and coasts.

In addition, the country’s sea transportation authorities issued a decree in October 2019 mandating the use of low-sulphur fuel and the gas exhaust management in Sea Transportation Directorate General Decree NoSE.35/2019.

The regulatory umbrella derives from the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL Convention) Annex VI Regulation 14, IMO Resolution Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 307(73) : 2018 Guidelines for the Discharge of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Bleed-Off Water, and on national level, the Indonesian Transportation Ministerial Regulation No. 29/2014 on Maritime Environment Pollution Prevention.

Researcher at the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Daniel Lack , was aboard the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown in the Gulf of Mexico in 2006, testing an instrument he had built that could measure black carbon in the atmosphere.

Lack found that there is such a large amount of particle emissions.

He learned that bunker fuel burns inefficiently. The more inefficiently a fuel burns, the more black carbon particles are emitted. Only forest fires produce more black carbon than bunker fuel. Bunker fuel can have a sulfur content of up to 45,000 parts per million (ppm), Low-sulfur diesel for cars is supposed eto contain 10 ppm.

Modeling studies led by James Corbett, a marine policy professor at the University of Delaware’s College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment, produced a startling data in 2007: shipping emission of particulate matter accounted for approximately 60,000 cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths annually. 70 per cent of the pollution occurs within 250 miles of land, near coastlines linked to busy shipping lanes in Europe, East Asia, and South Asia. In Los Angeles, half of all smog from sulfur dioxide comes in from ships.

The 1997 Kyoto Protocol did not even consider ships, as they focused on aviation and cars. The IMO did not anounce a timetable of meetings to deal with greenhouse gases in shipping until 2006, and the first meeting took place only in 2008.

It now becomes more commonplace that shipping conferences have some sustainability-themed components, such as clean ships, green ships, wind power for sailing ships, or “cold ironing”, meaning that ships do not keep their engines running while they are in port, but are powered by shoreside electricity.

Maerks Kalmar set sail in 2010 powered by two containers full of Soladiesel made from microscopic algae.

Richard Branson’s initiative The Carbon War Room explained that fuel-efficient ships can save the industry USD70 billion a year and cut emissionby 30 per cent. Every ton of fuel can cut carbon dioxide emissions by 3 tons. Going on 15 knots instead of 20 can save millions.

Read also: Richard Branson venture into ecopreneurship and sociopreneurship

 

 

Jakarta air quality during pandemic lockdown

The sky seemed blue for once in the eyes of Jakartans, some even claimed to smell fresher air as they commuted past the lesser traffic during lockdown. Emission level may seem thinner, but a harmful air pollutant such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5), persists.

Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA), on a report co-released with Greenpeace, said the fear of pandemic had variably impacted the air quality of Southeast Asian cities. The level of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) showed significant decreases year on year in Jakarta, Manila, and Bangkok, particularly due to halts in transporation and manufacture activities. Similarly, Kuala Lumpur even recorded 60 per cent drop.

But PM2.5, at the diameter size of 2.5 micrometers, continues to loom Jakarta, as it had been for years, despite NO2 down 40 per cent YoY, making it still the most polluted region in Southeast Asia, according to CREA analyst Isabella Suarez, in a press release received at ASPI desk last Friday.

Judging from the 1 Januari – 22 April 2020 data, she is convinced that the air pollutant is emitted from the surrounding industrial regions of Bodetabek, and the coal-fired plants especially in Cilegon, Banten, and Indramayu, West Java.

Greenpeace Indonesia climate and energy spokesperson Bondan Andriyanu said in a teleconference on 30 April that Jakarta is surrounded by a number of coal power plants (PLTU) in radius of 100 kilometers. Among the emitted substances is PM2.5.

There are 5 such plants currently in operation, with additional 4 planned.

According to Greenpeace Indonesia, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry repeatedly dismissed the capability of these plants bringing impacts to the capital region, pointing on the rampant construction activities instead.

Meanwhile, difference in standard measurements adds up to the risks, and remain unreconciled. WHO tolerate up to 25 microgram per cubic meter per 24-hour, not to mention aiming for annual mean exposure threshold of 10, whereas the Indonesian government, as stipulated in the Air Pollution Control Act Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 41 tahun 1999 tentang Pengendalian Pencemaran Udara, set the limit 2.5 times higher at 65 per day, or annual threshold at 15.

Based on data from United States-based air-quality website AirNow, the annual PM2.5 concentration in Central Jakarta in 2019 was at average 40.1. This year, daily average was 30.13 from March 16 to 25, and 15.48 from March 26 to April 4.

Data by AirVisual, one of the world’s largest real-time air quality information platforms, suggested that visual clarity the Jakartans brag about recently does not translate into good air quality, looking at the 16 March to 14 April records.

For example, air quality on 13 April, referring to the United States Air Quality Index (US AQI) was recorded at 113 with PM2.5 concentration at 40.2. By US AQI standard, Jakarta air quality that day was “unhealthy for sensitive groups”.

The 2019 Air Quality Report by IQAir ranked Jakarta the 5th most polluted capital of the world, behind Delhi (98.6), Dhaka (83.3), UlaanBaatar (62), and Kabul (58.5).

In Southeast Asia, 5 top polluted cities are all Indonesian: South Tangerang (81.3), Bekasi (62.6), Pekanbaru (52.8), Pontianak (49.7), and Jakarta (49.4).

The following COVID-19 Air Quality Report covering 10 cities with historically high levels of PM2.5 pollution, however, underlined the biggest drop in Delhi average PM2.5 rate to 32.8, outperforming Wuhan at 35.1. Both cities entered moderate level by WHO category.

Environmental group Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia (Walhi) in a slightly pessimistic tone urged the specific health-prone group living in Jakarta to wear protective masks, on the absentmindedness of the government, when interviewed mid last year.

On a separate discussion held by Komite Penghapusan Bensin Bertimbel, Jakarta, an activist even perceived the act of ignorance by the authorities as a violation of human rights, taking into account pasal 9 ayat 3 Undang-Undang nomor 39 tahun 1999 tentang Hak Asasi Manusia, stating a person’s right to live in a good and healthy environment.

In August 2019, 31 citizens grouped in Tim Advokasi Gerakan Ibu Kota sought legal action against the government for the losses caused by air pollution, in this case, the president of the Republic Indonesia, the ministers of environmental and forestry, public affair, health, governors of Jakarta, West Java, and Banten.

In tackling the issue, Jakarta Environment Agency head Andono Warih said in October that the Jakarta governor has issued a decree named Instruksi Gubernur Nomor 66 Tahun 2019. 

The final verdict of the citizen lawsuit is still pending, possibly until late 2020, a source with a knowledge of the situation said.

Langkah bangun fondasi keuangan dari George S. Clason

Salah satu buku terkenal yang membahas mengenai keuangan ini membangun fondasi perilaku mengatur keuangan yang baik dan benar bagi mereka yang bahkan belum tahu dari mana harus memulai. Meski pertama kali diterbitkan pada 1926, pemikirannya masih relevan dengan situasi sekarang.

ASPI financial advisor Agus Chang, B.Sc, MPM, merangkum intisari buku pilihan think archipelago minggu ini The Richest Man in Babylon karya George S. Clason ke dalam lima poin pembelajaran.

Poin pertama, setiap menerima pendapatan, sisihkan sebagian di depan untuk diri sendiri sebelum menyalurkannya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dan keinginan dengan membayar kepada orang lain atas jasa atau barang yang kita terima.

Filosofi di balik ini adalah dengan menyisihkan uang untuk diri sendiri bukan berarti kita menggunakannya untuk keinginan sendiri, namun untuk mempertebal kantong kita, serta bagian dari penghargaan (gratification) atas jerih payah sendiri.

Baca juga: Memaksimalkan kebutuhan dan keinginan

Porsi pendapatan yang dianjurkan untuk disisihkan adalah 10 persen. Hal ini juga dapat dimaknai sebagai cara menyisihkan uang yang baik, yaitu dengan menyisihkan dulu, kemudian disisakan untuk pengeluaran, dibandingkan dengan cara yang umum di mana kita menentukan target terlebih dahulu namun baru menabung sisanya di akhir periode setelah membayar kebutuhan dan keinginan. 

Poin kedua adalah kontrol pengeluaran. Buku ini menekankan perbedaan antara pengeluaran atas kebutuhan dengan keinginan. Keinginan cenderung melebihi besarnya pendapatan. Pencatatan pengeluaran dibutuhkan untuk dapat mencapai target penyisihan minimal 10% dan mengidentifikasi pengeluaran apa yang mengakibatkan terjadinya kebocoran anggaran dan mengevaluasi pengeluaran apa yang dapat dihentikan guna mencapai target penyisihan minimal.

Poin ketiga adalah pergunakan dengan bijak uang yang disisihkan untuk investasi. Investasi bijak yang dimaksud di sini menekankan pada pengetahuan awal pra-investasi yang tepat pada bidang atau instrumen yang hendak digeluti. Banyak yang mengabaikan pengetahuan investasi terjerumus akibat mengira bahwa yang dilakukan adalah investasi meski sebenarnya adalah spekulasi.

George mengangkat isu tentang menitipkan sejumlah nilai investasi pada orang lain dalam cerita kisah mengenai sang peminjam emas. Pelajaran yang dapat diambil adalah bila hendak menginvestasikan uang pada orang lain, pastikan menginvestasikannya pada pihak yang memiliki pengetahuan yang menunjang imbal hasil yang baik. Jangan berikan kepada orang yang lalai dan tidak punya kemampuan mengembalikan, atau bahkan kepada penipu yang menjanjikan imbal hasil yang terlalu memikat. Nasihat lainnya untuk poin ini adalah pentingnya melakukan investasi yang dapat menjamin modal yang terlindungi. Tampak jelas bahwa pendekatan buku ini terhadap investasi bersifat konservatif.

Baca juga: Kesempatan di balik pandemi

Poin keempat adalah mempekerjakan uang yang diperoleh dari penghasilan investasi, atau konsep bunga berbunga di mana untuk setiap hasil investasi yang diperoleh diinvestasikan kembali.

Kapan kita dapat mencicipi hasil investasi? Jawabannya terdapat pada mengulang siklus kembali poin pertama yang mengajarkan untuk menyisihkan 10% penghasilan. Bila diterapkan secara disiplin, maka uang yang disisihkan akan semakin besar sejalan dengan penghasilan yang meningkat. Di saat yang sama, 90% penghasilan yang digunakan untuk selain investasi juga akan meningkat, sebab seiring dengan peningkatan penghasilan, gaya hidup juga meningkat.

Poin kelima adalah memastikan agar perencanaan keuangan terjaga di masa depan. Meski tidak dijelaskan langkah spesifik bagaimana merencanakannya, namun menerapkan poin-poin pembelajaran sebelumnya bertujuan untuk mencapai tujuan akhir di poin kelima ini. akan ada saatnya kita tidak dapat secara aktif lagi bekerja dan dapat menuai apa yang sudah kita bangun sehingga pada masa tua hidup senantiasa sejahtera, serta dapat menyiapkan warisan untuk keluarga dan keturunan.

Walter Mischel self control

Photo by David Dini, courtesy of Columbia University

Walter Mischel (1930 – 2018) adalah salah satu psikolog paling berpengaruh di dunia berkat penelitian berkelanjutan sepanjang karirnya sebagai pengajar Psikologi, mulai dari Universitas Colorado, Harvard, Stanford, hingga Columbia, terhadap perilaku manusia dari segi kemampuan untuk mengendalikan diri (self-control) dan penundaan kesenangan (delaying gratification).

Pengakuan atas kontribusinya terbukti dari pengangkatan dirinya sebagai anggota American Academy of Arts and Sciences pada tahun 1991, kemudian anggota National Academy of Sciences pada 2004, dan presiden Association for Psychological Science (APS) pada 2007. Penghargaan yang telah ia terima antara lain University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award in Psychology pada 2011, kemudian the Golden Goose Award, bersama rekannya sesama anggota APS Yuichi Shoda dan Philip Peake atas pencapaian besar di bidang ilmu pengetahuan yang bermanfaat bagi masyarakat

Karya penting Walter berasal dari hasil eksperimen ia dan koleganya terhadap pengendalian diri dan kualitas kehidupan beberapa dekade kemudian, yang dikenal dengan marshmallow test.

Mengutip jurnal yang diterbitkan Asosiasi Psikologi Amerika (APA), berawal dari pengukuran kemampuan peserta eksperimen dari kalangan anak-anak untuk menahan godaan menikmati marshmallow, eksperimen ini dilanjutkan oleh para kolega B.J. Casey, PhD, Yuichi Shoda, PhD, dan lainnya hingga penemuan kausalitas dalam jangkauan yang lebih luas antara pengendalian diri di masa kecil dan seberapa baik pencapaian dalam hidup mereka saat sudah dewasa di usia 40an.

Mengutip rangkuman dari ASPI financial advisor Agus Chang, B.Sc, MPM, dalam artikel Tes Marshmallow tolok ukur potensi sukses, penelitian lanjutan menunjukkan mereka yang ketika kecil menunggu untuk mendapatkan lebih banyak cenderung memiliki kehidupan yang lebih bahagia, lebih sukses, dan secara finansial lebih mapan dibandingkan dengan mereka yang dulu memilih langsung memakan kudapan yang ada di hadapan.

Walter lahir di Vienna, Austria dari keluarga keturunan Yahudi. Mereka menyelematkan diri dari ancaman persekusi rasial Nazi (holocaust) ke Amerika Serikat pada 1938. Ia besar di Brooklyn, mendapatkan gelar S1 dan S2 di New York University, dan gelar PhD psikologi klinis di the Ohio State University pada 1956.

Menurut testimoni orang-orang di sekelilingnya dari obituari yang diterbitkan APS, Walter sudah terbiasa dengan insomnia yang membuatnya hanya tertidur 4-5 jam sehari. Ia tidak pernah mengeluh meski didiagnosa penyakit celiac, sejenis penyakit autoimun, pada usia 40an, atau osteoporosis pada usia 70an. Ia justru membalikkan situasi buruk dengan, misalnya, berpetualang mencari alternatif kuliner yang belum pernah dicicipinya, atau giat berolahraga untuk menurunkan berat badan demi melawan penyakit-penyakitnya.

Walter juga tertarik pada psikologi kepribadian dan konsep adaptasi manusia terhadap perubahan lingkungan yang dramatis. Ia mengambil contoh ayahnya yang ia gambarkan hidup dengan kebanggaan di tengah kemapanan karirnya di kampung halaman, dan ibunya yang mudah iritasi dan emosional di rumah. Setelah mereka menetap di New York, ayahnya bekerja sebagai karyawan di toko dengan kepribadian yang berubah, kini minder, dan ibunya yang menyadari bahwa keluarga butuh uang untuk bertahan hidup, bekerja sebagai pelayan, dan berubah menjadi penyemangat hidup keluarga.

Diingat oleh para murid dan rekannya sebagai seorang pecinta seni rupa di luar dedikasinya terhadap ilmu psikologi, seorang teman yang telah mengenalnya 20 tahun mengatakan tidak ada studi kepribadian sepenting penemuan Walter semenjak karya Sigmund Freud.

Namun, dari artikel The New Yorker oleh Maria Konnikova yang dulu adalah murid S2 Walter saat di Columbia University pada 2008, Walter diketahui menjadi seorang pecandu rokok dan penghisap rokok tembakau pipa. Ketika diwawancarai, ia mengaku sebagai perokok 3 bungkus sehari, sebelum ia memutuskan berhenti, meski butuh perjuangan melewati fase putus sambung, setelah melihat seorang pasien sekarat kasus perokok kronis di unit kedokteran Stanford University.

Dari sana, setiap kali ada dorongan, ia menciptakan gambaran mengerikan tentang perokok sekarat tersebut di benaknya yang kemudian membuat ia mengurungkan niat merokok, selamanya.

Baca juga: Tes Marshmallow tolok ukur potensi sukses

Mischel Walter menerbitkan buku pertamanya The Marshmallow test: mastering self control pada tahun 2014 di usia 84 tahun yang berisi kumpulan memoar, ilmu pengetahuan, dan panduan.

Buku tersebut memandu pembaca menciptakan faktor yang dapat mendinginkan (cool) dorongan kuat atau faktor impulsif (hot). Walter percaya bahwa kemampuan untuk menunda kesenangan sama dengan kemampuan untuk membuat pilihan yang baik di tengah godaan. Dengan begitu kita meraih kebebasan dalam arti sesungguhnya: bebas dari faktor impulsif dalam pengambilan keputusan yang baik.

Sama seperti ia mencontohkan pengendalian diri dalam perjuangannya ketika memutuskan berhenti merokok.

Langkah adaptasi hadapi krisis

Artikel ini dibuat atas keprihatinan terhadap komunitas kita yang terpukul sejak pandemi melanda, dengan harapan dapat membantu rekan-rekan bangkit dan menjadi lebih tangguh. Setiap krisis yang datang tidak akan menetap, tetapi akan berlalu.

Tidak ada yang pasti di dunia kecuali perubahan. Dan di tengah perubahan yang tak terelakkan, kita harus beradaptasi, atau gamblangnya terpaksa beradaptasi. Satu teori mengenai keberlangsungan hidup mengatakan bahwa bukan yang terkuat, melainkan yang paling dapat beradaptasi, yang akan bertahan.

Belajar beradaptasi, itu yang harus difokuskan ketika krisis datang. Hanya dengan tindakan dan evaluasi, krisis dapat teratasi. Krisis memukul banyak industri dan bisnis, namun ada pembelajaran besar yang terkandung di dalamnya.

COVID-19 menjadi biang pandemi pertama dalam 102 tahun sejak 1918 di mana saat itu dunia lumpuh karena wabah flu spanyol selama 3 tahun. Artinya ini bukan krisis yang selama ini sering diramalkan terkait resesi atau karena terjadinya perang antar negara.

Apa pun itu, yang ingin digarisbawahi, krisis tidak dapat diketahui kapan akan terjadi dan bisa menimpa siapa saja. Yang dapat dilakukan adalah bagaimana kita beradaptasi dengan keadaan.

Fujifilm dan Kodak menjadi salah satu contoh klasik bagaimana perubahan harus segera direspon dengan beradaptasi. Begitu berjayanya Kodak pada masa lampau sehingga orang-orang sempat menggunakan sinonim kamera saku analog dengan sebutan kodak. Kebiasaan ini bertahan sampai akhirnya pasar digital kamera menemukan momentum.

Sebuah ironi bagi Kodak mengingat paten komponen digital kamera pertama di tahun 1971 didaftarkan oleh Louis A. Lopes Jr dan Owen F. Thomas, pekerja peneliti dan pengembangan (R&D) di Kodak yaitu David Lewis mengembangkan kamera CCD pertama di tahun 1974, dan dikembangkan lebih lanjut oleh Steven Sasson, juga bekerja di Kodak, sehingga menciptakan prototype awal kamera digital.

Sayangnya petinggi Kodak melihat hal ini bukan sebagai peluang menjadi pionir, namun ancaman kemapanan bisnis mereka. Kamera digital mulai dikenal oleh masyarakat umum di pertengahan 90an sampai mencapai momentum popularitas pada 2003. Setahun kemudian, Kodak mengumumkan tidak lagi menjual roll film dan akhirnya menyatakan bangkrut di tahun 2012.

Di sisi lain, Fujifilm menyikapi perubahan dengan cara yang berbeda. Tahun 2000, Shigataka Komori ditunjuk untuk menjadi CEO dan reformasi di tubuh Fujifilm pun terjadi terutama di bidang R&D, di mana Komori memerintahkan untuk mengeluarkan daftar teknologi yang dikembangkan secara internal oleh Fujifilm yang dapat digunakan untuk kebutuhan di masa mendatang.

Kantor pusat Fujifilm, Tokyo

Kebijakan yang diambil setelah melihat perubahan di pasar industri fotografi, dan peluang melakukan diversifikasi ke pasar lain seperti panel LCD, farmasi, bahkan kosmetik, telah menyelamatkan Fujifilm dari nasib serupa yang dialami Kodak.

Sebagai perbandingan, pada awal milenium di tahun 2000, penjualan Kodak sebesar 14 miliar dolar AS menurun 48% menjadi 7,2 miliar dolar AS di tahun 2010. Sementara Fujifilm pada tahun 2000 membukukan penjualan 1,4 triliun yen, dilanjutkan kenaikan 57% menjadi 2,2 triliun yen di tahun 2010.

Berangkat dari inspirasi di atas, ditambah ketidakpastian kapan perekonomian bisa kembali menggeliat, berikut tips beradaptasi yang diilustrasikan dalam studi kasus.

Pip adalah seorang karyawan suatu perusahaan yang terimbas oleh krisis akibat COVID-19 sehingga terpaksa dirumahkan. Penghasilan Pip dalam sebulan 4,500,000 rupiah. Pip tidak mengetahui secara pasti dalam siklus 1 bulan, berapa uang yang dia berhasil sisihkan baik itu untuk dikumpulkan sebagai modal katering rumahan yang ia rencanakan, maupun yang mau diinvestasikan. Yang dia tahu, dia merasa sudah menabung dengan penghasilan bulanannya tersebut.

Pip juga merasa nyaman karena dapat manfaat asuransi dari perusahannya, sehingga imbas dari pemutusan hubungan kerja ini adalah hilangnya penghasilan bulanan dan manfaat asuransi yang sebelumnya diberikan di perusahaan, serta harus bertahan dengan tabungan.

Berdasarkan studi kasus ini, langkah awal yang perlu dilakukan Pip adalah introspeksi positif. Pip perlu mengesampingkan faktor luar penyebab terjadinya kesulitan yang seringkali berada di luar kontrol dirinya. Contohnya, mengumpat perusahaan tempatnya bekerja tidak berperikemanusiaan, bahkan berencana menuntut.

Meski faktor luar berkontribusi langsung terhadap krisis, menyalahkan faktor luar cenderung membuat diri beralasan untuk tidak memperbaiki keadaan. 

Sebaliknya, Pip perlu fokus pada langkah perbaikan diri. Faktor internal yang mencakup koreksi diri dimulai dengan beberapa pertanyaan instrospektif, seperti, “Apa langkah selanjutnya yang harus saya ambil untuk mengatasi hal ini?”  Selanjutnya, apabila krisis sudah mulai terkontrol, “Apa yang seharusnya saya lakukan agar dapat mengatasi krisis serupa di masa depan?”

Pertanyaan negatif seperti, “Mengapa hal ini harus terjadi pada saya?” atau “Mengapa tidak ada yang menolong saya pada masa sulit ini?” membuat kita mencari alasan dan terus meratapi nasib.

Sebaliknya, pertanyaan yang positif akan membangun momentum yang dibutuhkan untuk bangkit.

Langkah selanjutnya yang harus dilakukan Pip adalah identifikasi menyeluruh. Berdasarkan pertanyaan introspektif tersebut Pip mulai dapat mengidentifikasi kesalahan sehingga bisa segera melakukan langkah perbaikan.

Pertanyaan tentang langkah selanjutnya yang diambil untuk mengatasi hal ini dapat dijawab dengan sejumlah rencana, mulai dari mencari pekerjaan lain, atau melihat hal ini sebagai kesempatan untuk memulai bisnis katering yang sudah direncanakan dengan protokol higienis atau sistem manajemen keamanan pangan, serta jasa pengantaran yang kian populer digunakan kini, atau bisa juga memperoleh pemasukan dengan menjadi bagian dari garda depan melawan COVID-19.

Ketika keadaan berangsur membaik, pertanyaan selanjutnya seperti apa yang seharusnya dilakukan agar dapat mengatasi krisis serupa di masa depan, mungkin dapat dijawab dengan pengaturan keuangan yang lebih disiplin seperti rutin mencatat pengeluaran sehingga dapat mengetahui kondisi keuangan, melakukan investasi untuk menambah nilai lebih terhadap uang yang dimiliki, mencadangkan dana untuk menghadapi situasi darurat setelah kehilangan pekerjaan, mempertimbangkan memiliki asuransi pribadi sesuai kemampuan.

Langkah ketiga adalah aksi. Setelah melakukan introspeksi terarah dan identifikasi menyeluruh, maka aksi sekecil apa pun menjadi berarti. Aksi akan menghasilkan hasil, hasil yang didapatkan bisa berupa keberhasilan atau kegagalan. Pada fase inilah determinasi penting untuk dipahami. Hasil yang berhasil tentu akan baik dan memberikan kepercayaan diri untuk melanjutkan atau memulai hal lain yang selanjutnya direncanakan, lain halnya jika hasil yang didapatkan berupa kegagalan, untuk itu determinasi sangat diperlukan untuk mencapai hasil yang diharapkan meski sebelumnya menemui kegagalan. Dengan determinasi, kita akan memahami bahwa kegagalan adalah pembelajaran dan menanyakan kembali langkah lain apa yang bisa dilakukan selain yang sudah dicoba sebelumnya.

Meski berurutan, 2 langkah sebelumnya sia-sia apabila tidak ada tindakan nyata sampai hasil yang diharapkan tercapai untuk menyelesaikan proses adaptasi. Tanpa aksi dan kebulatan tekad untuk mencapai yang diinginkan, walaupun kita sudah menjalani dengan baik introspeksi dan identifikasi, Pip akan kembali ke titik nadir semula.

Salah satu tips untuk semakin memperbesar probabilitas melakukan aksi adalah dengan mendokumentasikan kapan dan di mana rencana yang sudah kita tetapkan sebelumnya.

Latih diri kita dengan tiga langkah adaptasi di atas agar selalu bisa mengatasi perubahan yang merupakan hal yang pasti terjadi dalam hidup.